Fictitious Entry by Sharif Youssef
Producer Sharif Youssef moved to the Bay Area about a year ago and faced a problem the locals know all too well: ridiculously expensive housing. After some troubles with a landlord, he sought legal advice and along the way he wound up finding a few ideas to pitch as potential episodes about the design of the legal system. One of his favorite finds was a quirky story at the intersection of cartography and copyright law.
Some things are easier to copyright than others. Things like music, graphic design, typefaces and most forms of creative art are relatively straightforward. Theoretically, copyright infringement cases involving those media should be fairly easy to prove and resolve, too. But what about copyrighting things that are inherently not creative — that are supposed to collect, preserve, or disseminate an objective reality or truth (an encyclopedia, say, or a dictionary or map)? What’s to stop Merriam-Webster from copying and pasting the Oxford English Dictionary and slapping their own brand on the cover? They are the same words, so they have to have pretty much identical definitions.
Well, people in the business of making or compiling this type of information have come up with clever ways to help ensure that their work isn’t stolen. And it usually involves deliberately inserting a false “fact” into their work. That way if the same “fact” appears somewhere else, they can tell that a competitor has simply lifted it.
For example, the 1975 edition of the New Columbia Encyclopedia has an entry for Lillian Virginia Mountweazel, a fountain designer turned photographer. She was well known for her depictions of American mailboxes and died at the age of 31 in a fiery explosion while on assignment for Combustibles magazine. Except–Ms. Mountweazel never existed. She was a copyright trap.
A similar thing happened with the New Oxford American Dictionary. They created a new word: esquivalience—n. the willful avoidance of one’s official responsibilities (late 19th cent.: perhaps from French esquiver, “dodge, slink away.”). That was also fake — another trap.
Some copyright traps, however, are also spatial — not just people or words, but physical places. In the 1930s, for instance, cartographers from the General Drafting Company drew up a map of New York State, but, wary of would-be copycats, they created a fictitious town in upstate New York. They named this town Agloe, a mix of the initials of the two higher-ups at the company (Otto G. Lindberg and an assistant, Ernest Alpers). A few years later, Rand McNally (another cartography firm) released their own map of the state, and sure enough: there was Agloe, the very same town in the very same spot on this tiny country road between the towns of Roscoe and Beaverkill. The accused doubled down on their defense of the fake town’s legitimacy and, together, the companies scoped it out.
They didn’t find a bustling town with a grid or public transit system, but they did find something: the Agloe General Store and a pair of houses. This once-fictional place had become a reality. People living around the “town” presumably saw it on a map, checked it out, found nothing there and decided to build something under the same name.
The town is gone now and has been for a long time, but there is a sign along the road that reads “Welcome to Agloe! Home of the Agloe General Store.” The store is abandoned and slowly falling apart, but for now, it is still standing. As recently as 2014, the town even showed up on Google Maps (since removed). Agloe is now just a memory — a place created as a lie, brought into reality, and now returned to the ether and wiped from the map. Fittingly, however, Agloe does live on in John Green’s book Paper Towns and the subsequent film of the same name. Both are works of fiction.
Very excited that you’re talking about my hometown but… it’s Newcastle, not New Castle!
What is the name of the the song at the end of this episode?
I would also LOVE to know! Thanks, and keep up the great work!
If you mean the Carl Orff piece at the end of the bit about the Byker Wall, it’s called “Carmina Burana”. The section they played which most people recognise is called “Oh Fortuna”
I’ve loved these mini-story episodes soooo much, partly because of the topics and partly because I get to hear from all of the other (normally) silent members of the 99pi team. Great work, y’all!
I would also LOVE to know. Thank you!
Hi–I started listening to your show a couple years ago after I gave a short talk in Northern England about a landscape park I’d restored–when I finished the organiser’s comment was ‘you sound like Roman Mars’! I thought I’d write with two things about the mini-stories–first, I worked for four years in Newcastle, and discovered among other things that the Geordies love their infrastructure almost as much as their beer and brass bands:
(Byker is even mentioned a couple of times–there’s a station there.)
Second, cities or developers nowadays may randomly name streets, roads, avenues, boulevards, etc. but each of these terms once had a very specific meaning. I recently read an article tracing the word ‘way’, indicating that its original meaning suggested a steep street–something useful for waggoners to know before they chose their routes.
The city where Byker is located is Newcastle (upon Tyne), not New Castle.
Surely the bigger problem with having a standardised chart for testing eyesight is that the person being tested may become familiar with the sequence of letters? Sometimes in these tests, I have been not sure whether I can really read the bottom row of letters, or whether I am just remembering what they are.
The eye chart story is better than the majority of topics you cover – would love to hear the full version.
Totally agree, I normally listen trough a podcast app, this was one of the few times I just had to google something because I wanted to know how it looked.
The copyright trap is given a sci-fi explanation as well as a practical one in the Doctor Who episode “Face The Raven”. It’s cool when a writer mixes a little bit of truth in with their fiction, no?
I totally love these mini story episodes. They are just so dang fun! I welcome the idea of doing more mini story episodes a few times a year. What about perhaps doing a dedicated short-format podcast devoted to single ministories? Something along the lines of Scientific American’s 60-Second science? Just a thought.
Love these short stories. A couple of points that occurred to me about the eye chart. First, if the Snellen chart is easy for the optometrist to memorize, isn’t another down side that it’s easy for the user to memorize. Kind of self defeating for the user, but it could even inadvertently create inaccurate results over time.
Second, isn’t another interesting aspect of this chart, the design issues related to the creation of the system for measuring eyesight (e.g. 20/20). Weren’t there other systems that were absolute rather than relative?
As a Canadian high school student, we studied the Snellen ratio in (accelerated) physics as part of the study of light, and used patterns of parallel lines (like a spatial frequency chart from old TV). I recall my lab partner (a provincially ranked baseball pitcher) had something like a 9/6 for his dominant eye.
So I have a way to get Katie’s eyechart into a full episode, cover a few different things that we use all the time that are hard to use like the qwerty keyboard.
Man, I’ve been waiting for this for what seems like forever! Thanks 99pi!
I’m with Avery! The design of charts and equipment for measuring vision and what it actually means to test 20/20 on a vision chart sounds like a fascinating concept to cover. I would be interested in hearing more about it. A majority of people wear vision correcting lenses and interact with optometrists, so it strikes me as something with a wide appeal as well.
Yes eye chart, eye chart, eye chart!
I found it strange that you felt the need to repeat Beatrix Campbell’s lines, not once but twice. I understand that it’s radio, and that the majority of the audience might not be overly familiar with the Geordie accent, but hers wasn’t particularly strong. You’ve had people from all over the world on the show before, without resorting to this, so to do it with a native English speaker is kind of jarring. I liked the episode, and I think that the mini stories concept is great, but I was really distracted by that choice.
I used to live near Byker and I agree that it is special. It is often cited as the start of community architecture in Britain. I dont know if that is the case – and neither do i know if two other stories about it are true – that the community consultees did not want tradition but pushed the designers to more inventive design once they saw what was being built in the first phase and what is possible. Newcastle has (or had recently) more architects per head of population than any other city in Britain. I sometimes wonder if this is because the architects who came to work on Byker with Ralph Erskine stayed there. The point is that its a place that is sufficiently interesting for people to make myths and poetic comments about. I admit that Bea Campbell’s attempts at architectural criticism are embarrassing but how good to have people who are not designers talking so generously about recent architecture in this way. If you want to know more there is a very good conservation plan written by Jules Brown at the North East Civic Trust.
Loved the section on the Byker Wall. Apparently it was originally intended for a main road to run much closer to it, matching the curve of the Wall, but the road was scrapped. The Wall was built in that shape anyway, then the idea of a road was resurrected, following the design that it has now (i.e. alongside the Wall, but much straighter).
Also, the streets that you were describing “like Billy Elliot” are known as terraced streets (often shortened to “terraces”) :-)
I want to hear a full episode on 20/20 vision still!!!!!!
Loved the mini stories!! Keep them coming throughout the year.
I was the firefighter who emailed you about the knox box. I had completely forgotten about it! Thanks for the awesome mini story.
The modern Byker Wall is kind of horrendous. The old 1970s (and before) Byker estate version seemed to waste a lot of space but seemed more like a neighborhood and community.
Urban planning is certainly challenging, I wouldn’t want to be in architect Ralph Erskine shoes.
I loved the story about the Snellen chart, and I think it would be interesting to look at visual acuity charts used in other countries, especially those where the written language doesn’t involve our roman alphabet.
I’ve lived in Taiwan for a couple of years and had to undergo a complete medical check-up for my student visa, which included an eyesight test. I was surprised to see that the chart used was different from our own; instead of letters, it featured a shape resembling a capital E, but oriented in four different ways. To pass the test, I had to name the direction that the three ‘legs’ of the E were facing, either left, right, top, or bottom. Simple enough, can be applied in all languages, but maybe not as easy to memorize as the Snellen. Anyway, I thought it might interest you – I think there are a few images online.
my eye dr does the chart digitally (in a dim room with a projector) she also switches up the letters for when she is fine-tuning your prescription.
i feel like the chart is a jumping off point, giving you the range of vision, not 100% precise. (or maybe that is my darkroom experience talking–doing 5 second increments on a negative then fine tuning from there)
also, i never knew that you could just get a majority right! i sit there and struggle with c/g e/f etc on the lower lines. glad to know i can just guess and if its wrong, i can still “pass” that level!
There’s gotta be a ministory to be told about Begich Towers and The Town Under One Roof!
First-time listener here! Why not resurrect the eye chart story now that it’s 2020?